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Home 2018-09-25T08:33:05+00:00

ABOUT APPLICATION

DOWN THE MEMORY LANE

In the early eighties, THE PIPE FITTER’S AND PIPE WELDER’S HANDBOOK, written by Thomas W Frankland and first published in the US as far back as in the year 1955, was no less than the revered Bible for pipe fitters and engineers involved in pipe fabrication. Those days, it was from this handbook that we learned the basic fundamentals of fabrication and other applications. Among other things, the contents of this handbook were so suggestive, they prompted me to experiment and try solving more complex fabrication configurations, which involved perfecting different layout techniques and then converting them into formulae, which was possible using scientific calculators. The idea which cropped up after about 20 years, was to publish this work, a collection of a few hundred formulae, as a handbook, just as Mr. Frankland had done. But the fact that the users would have to carry not only the book but a scientific calculator also and most importantly, the danger involved in the user inadvertently entering an invalid input during the calculation sequence resulting in a wrong answer, which the user may not get a clue about. This probability prompted me to have this work published as a customized device similar to a regular scientific calculator in size and appearance, wherein the mathematical formulae would be converted and programmed to the device’s memory. This was, and still is the desired product form to publish this work, but the complexities involved in having such a product realized are factors that this work is being offered as an Android App instead. The satisfaction of having developed this App is no match to the fond and nostalgic memories cherished when using Mr. Frankland’s handbook in the past. Hats off to this maverick who pioneered pipe fabrication methodologies in an inimitable manner and created followers. The industry will remember him forever.

This website is meant to give a clear insight of and the scope covered in the Level-1 Edition of PIPING FABRICATION CALCULATOR IPC99, a unique, first of its kind and revolutionary App which helps pipe fitters to derive necessary parameters to accurately fabricate

  • 19 types of pipe-to-pipe branch connections or bracings and dummy supports with full or partial penetration welding option,

  • 4 types of concentric and eccentric reducers from pipe as well as plate,

  • 18 types of miters, i.e.,

           1 to 4 cut 0 to 90 degree single and double mitered offsets,

           1 to 4 cut 90 degree single and double mitered offsets,

           1 cut 90 to 180 degree miters,

           0 to 90 degree transitions with full or partial penetration welding option and true Y branch connections,

  • 8 types of elbow-to-pipe dummy supports (concentric or eccentric) with full or partial penetration welding option.

This App can be said to be equally useful to pipe fitters, fabricators, foremen, supervisors, engineers and QA/QC personnel to company managers and directors essentially because it enables fabrication of configurations covered here in one single attempt, without requiring repeated marking, cutting, grinding, lifting or trimming, resulting in savings on raw materials, man-hours and consumables while improving job quality and productivity, the kind of attributes which any construction company involved in pipe fabrication would like to acquire and benefit from.

PIPING FABRICATION CALCULATOR IPC99 is meant for use by Pipe Fitters with minimal experience also (sizes covered: up to 48-inch diameter), however,

  • rather than just for Pipe Fitters, this CALCULATOR can be said to be much more useful to Foremen, Supervisors, and Engineers monitoring fabrication activities both on the Shop Floor or at the Field Level. Here we need to understand the fact that generally, Engineers do not have hands-on experience in Fabrication Methodologies while Pipe Fitters are known to adopt and rely on thumb-rule means to solve problems arising in different stages of fabrication due to their poor theoretical knowledge. In such a conflicting scenario, this CALCULATOR is poised to be accepted as a common source of reference by both the Tradesmen and Engineers working in different capacities

  • ideal as the syllabus to run Industry Endorsed Diploma Courses in Fabrication in Technical Training Institutes

  • also suitable for self-study for those who already have some experience to improvise their existing skills

  • Each Fig Function in the CALCULATOR comprises one each example with a trial calculation, highlighting how the variables are aligned in the corresponding Figure and most importantly, making a clear distinction between all the known variables, which are depicted in red and the answers in blue

The CALCULATOR can be said to have its user’s manual since users can switch between the Figure and its Calculation on two windows.

Let us forget about eccentric reducers, lateral tees, miters, ‘Y’ branches etc., during the course of developing the software for the proposed series of Calculators, it was observed that many times even experienced fabricators find it difficult to fabricate a simple one-piece ‘L’ type bracket from an angle in a single attempt, without repeated trimming. In contrast, the Calculator outlines 99 Figure Functions which completely eliminate repeated trimming, resulting in snug, accurate fit-ups, thus providing users with better insight of the job while improving job quality, productivity and helping ensure judicious use of raw material, consumables and man-hours.

This phenomenon suggests that there is a need to standardize fabrication methodologies, as never before, and PIPING FABRICATION CALCULATOR IPC99 is meant to usher in that trend.

For the first time in the History of Fabrication Industry, PIPING FABRICATION CALCULATOR IPC99 features one of the two correct methodologies to fabricate Eccentric Reducers from Pipe, which determines and suggests the number of cuts and gives the option to choose reducer length within the range of 0.75 to 1.5 times the larger pipe diameter and is perfected to  accuracy. The fascinating aspect of this Fig Function is that the arms, which form the reducer, need to be bent but not cross-bent, as is the case with existing methodologies, making it a lot easier!

There are a lot many other powerful features which give the option to choose either full or partial penetration weld joints in case of Type 1, 2 and Type 3 Tees, Laterals, Bracings, ‘Y’ branches and Pipe-to-Elbow Dummy supports or branch connections. This apart, piping offsets come with multiple options to choose from based on site condition. See the manual to check available options.

Apparently, it takes anywhere between 8 to 10 years for one to become a seasoned Fitter or Fabricator due to the absence of such suitably designed study and reference material as in the CALCULATOR as well as lack of adequate training facilities. PIPING FABRICATION CALCULATOR IPC99 helps reduce this time period to just 8 to 10 months instead of as many years.

GENERAL NOTES

General Notes applicable to all Fig Functions

(1)  General: If in doubt, consult and seek guidance from your seniors and/or refer to applicable drawings, specs or codes and standards.

(2)  Scope: Max pipe size covered in the scope of PIPING FABRICATION CALCULATOR IPC99 is NPS 48 or 1219 mm (Level-2 edition of this Calculator is envisaged to feature more advanced Fig Functions).

(3)  Unit of measurement: Fig Functions in this Calculator treat all Linear measure inputs as being millimeters and Angular measures as degrees.

(4)  Display of results: Linear measures are rounded to the nearest 0.1 millimeter and angular measures are rounded to the nearest 0.00001 degree.

(5)  Cutting Procedure: Unless noted otherwise, the Cutting Procedure applicable for initial cutting of all the profiles depicted herein is Standard, i.e. the center line of the cutting nozzle should always be perpendicular to the surface of the plane being cut from both the ‘x’ and ‘y’ axis for flat stock like Angles and Plate while in case of initial cutting of profiles on pipe, the center line of cutting nozzle should always pass through the center line of the pipe while also being perpendicular to the same. Beveling and/or chamfering should be done thereafter in accordance with applicable specifications and/or standards.

(6)  Dimensioning: Cutbacks and dimensions along the division lines, which form the profile, are depicted with dots instead of arrows so that the figure is less congested and has more clarity.

(7)  Limitations on choosing № of divisions: A 6-inch pipe may comprise of 8 to 104 divisions while an 8-inch pipe may comprise 8 to 136 divisions.  This allows to have max. numbers of divisions resulting in a smooth profile improving the accuracy of the job

CHAPTERS

Chapter 0

Solving Triangles and Parts of a Circle

Notes:

Scope: This is referred to as Chapter-0 because the Fig Functions covered in this chapter illustrate details involved in solving triangles and circles and form the basis for better and effective use of this Calculator. Memorizing properties of these Functions enhances the user’s proficiency.

Chapter 1

Fabricating Brackets and Bracings from Equal or Un-Equal Angles

Notes:

Scope: Fig Functions covered in this chapter illustrate finer details involved in fabricating one, two and three piece ‘L’, ‘U’ type and diagonal brackets from rolled steel equal or unequal angles.

Definitions: Definitions of words and/or abbreviations used in this chapters-IS: In Side, OS: Out Side, NS: Near Side, FS: Far Side

The value of Variable ‘W’: If un-equal angles are to be used, variable ‘W’ constitutes the width of either longer or shorter leg of the angle, as may be the case.

Making templates: Solutions derived by running Fig Functions illustrated in this chapter are for laying out the profile directly on the job.

However, if a template is to be made, due caution must be exercised to ascertain that accuracy is maintained after initial cutting.

Cutting procedure: Standard, for details, refer to Note 5, General Notes

Cutting Sequence and Direction: Apart from being able to choose and run an appropriate Fig Function and laying out the displayed results on the job, it is also necessary to be proficient in cutting marked profiles in the correct sequence and direction, particularly with respect to where the torch cutting should end. So as to make this process easier, the illustrations depict a dot on the cut lines of the profile, indicating where torch cutting should be terminated. Since this dot is aligned precisely at the transition of thickness from one plane to the other, caution must be exercised to avoid under-cuts as a result of overlap in terminating the cut.

Heating and Bending: After initial cutting and necessary edge preparation, heating and bending of the angle legs also require appropriate proficiency and at times, the size and thickness of the angle leg may warrant use of suitable jigs and fixtures to get the correct form.

Root Gap: Root Gap is not considered in Chapter 1 Fig Functions.

Edge Preparation and Welding: Depending on the thickness of the angle leg, Fig Functions illustrated in this chapter allow either fillet, square butt, and partial penetration welds or even almost full penetration welds when default bevel is available or a combination thereof. In the absence of an Approved Welding Specification, it is desirable that these joints be welded in accordance with acceptable Industry Workmanship Standard.

See General Notes for more details

Chapter 2

Laying out Division Lines on Pipes, Plate and Elbows

Notes:

Scope: Fig Functions covered in this chapter illustrate finer details involved in laying out division lines on plate, pipes, and elbows.

  • If the division lines are meant for laying out a circle, then the layout should begin with drawing the horizontal or vertical main ref line passing through the center of the circle. Using the main ref line as the starting point, division lines shall then be laid out towards left and right (or top and bottom) of the main ref line. In this case, width ‘W’ in the Fig Function constitutes half the diameter of the circle (or radius of the circle).

  • Likewise, if the division lines are meant for laying out an ellipse, then the layout should begin with drawing the horizontal or vertical main ref line passing through the major or minor axis of the ellipse. Using the main ref line as the starting point, division lines shall then be laid out towards left and right (or top and bottom) of the main ref line. In this case, width ‘W’ in the Fig Function constitutes either half the major or minor axis, as may be the case.

  • Division lines on pipes or elbow should be laid out as depicted in the corresponding Figures.

  • In either case, it is extremely important to ascertain the division lines are equally spaced and accurately parallel to each other and the corresponding reference line is accurately perpendicular to the division lines.

See General Notes for more details

Chapter 3

Laying out Circles (without using divider) and Elliptical Shapes

Notes:

Scope: Fig Functions covered in this chapter illustrate finer details involved in laying out circles on a plate or flat surface when a divider or compass can not be used due to obstructions. Allow laying out circles as well as Elliptical shapes in two different ways and Flange holes in multiples of 2 with a free starting point.

Making templates: Solutions derived by running Fig Functions illustrated in this chapter are for laying out the profile directly on the job. How ever, if a template is to be made, due caution must be exercised to ascertain that accuracy is maintained after initial cutting or drilling.

Cutting procedure: Standard, for details, refer to Note 5, General Notes.

See General Notes for more details

Chapter 4

Making Cold Bends from Small Bore Pipes

Notes:

Scope: The salient feature of Fig Functions covered in this chapter is about accurately ascertaining the radius of 90 and 45 degrees cold bends made using hydraulic bending machines meant for small bore piping. The results are based on the assumption that the center line of the pipe being bent is not subject to contraction or expansion, which may not be true in case of bends made by applying heat. The objective is to enhance the accuracy in maintaining the center-to-center dimensions between two corresponding bends.

Cutting procedure: Standard, for details, refer to Note 5, General Notes.

See General Notes for more details

Chapter 5

Fabricating 0 to 90 degree transitions, 1and 2 cut 0 to 90 degree mitered single and double offsets, 1, 2, 3 and 4 cut 90 degree mitered Single and Double offsets, 1 cut 90 to 180 degree miters and true ‘Y’ branches

Notes:

Scope: Fig Functions covered in this chapter allow fabrication of transitions, miters, mitered offsets and true ‘Y’ branches (root gap is not considered in any of the Fig Functions, during calculations, diameter of pipes should be within the range of NPS ½ to NPS 48, (i.e., 21.3 mm to 1219 mm, however, for the sake of accuracy, it is better to enter the values as in the table of dimensions). Since cutting allowance is not considered in the Fig Function calculations, adequate cutting allowance should be provided for depending on cutting process and proficiency in cutting the pipe. If partial penetration welds are desired, the joints may be joined without root gap.

Making templates: Solutions derived by running Fig Functions illustrated herein may be laid-out out directly on the job. However, if templates are to be made, due caution must be exercised to make sure that there is no gap between the mating ends of the template and/or that they do not overlap when wrapped around the pipe.

Cutting procedure: Standard, for details, refer to Note 5, General Notes.

See General Notes for more details

Chapter 6

Fabricating Concentric and Eccentric Reducers from Pipes and Plate

Notes:

Scope: Fig Functions covered in this chapter allow fabrication of concentric and eccentric reducers from pipe and plate (root gap is not considered in any of the Fig Functions). For fabricating concentric reducers from the pipe, diameters of larger and smaller end of pipes up to and including NPS 16 should be rounded to the nearest 0.1 mm and NPS 18 to 48 to the nearest whole millimeter (as in the Table of Dimensions). Fig Function suggests the length of reducer as well as number of cuts to be chosen but these can deviate. To know the range, enter zero for thickness, length and number of cuts.  In case of reducers from plate, larger and smaller ends comprise of plain end face, which should be beveled as per requirement either before or after rolling or forming.

Making templates: Solutions derived by running Fig Functions illustrated herein may be laid-out out directly on the job. However, if templates are to be made, due caution must be exercised to make sure that there is no gap between the mating ends of the template and/or that they do not overlap when wrapped around the pipe.

Cutting procedure: Standard, for details, refer to Note 5, General Notes.

See General Notes for more details

Chapter 7

Fabricating Type-1, 2 and Type-3 Tees and Lateral Tees, Full or Partial Penetration

Notes:

Scope: Fig Functions covered in this chapter allow fabrication of Type-1§, 2¶ and Type 3Ψ pipe-to-pipe branch connections, which may be categorized as being equal or un-equal 90˚ tees, laterals, dummy supports and tubular bracings. When full penetration weld joints are called for, the faces should be beveled in accordance with applicable specifications. During calculations, diameters of pipes should be within the range of NPS ½ to NPS 48, (i.e., 21.3 mm to 1219 mm, however, for the sake of accuracy, it is better to enter the values as in the table of dimensions). Cutting allowance should be accounted for from the side that is going to be discarded. If partial penetration welds are desired, the joints may be joined without root gap.

§Branch pipe rests on the main pipe, i.e., the ID of branch pipe mates with OD of the main pipe, with or without root gap.

¶Branch pipe breaks into the main pipe, i.e., OD of branch pipe mates with the ID of the main pipe, with or without root gap.

ΨSame size branch and main pipes mate at each other’s ID, with or without root gap.

Making templates: Solutions derived by running Fig Functions illustrated herein may be laid-out out directly on the job. However, if templates are to be made, due caution must be exercised to make sure that there is no gap between the mating ends of the template and/or that they do not overlap when wrapped around the pipe.

Cutting procedure: Standard, for details, refer to Note 5, General Notes.

See General Notes for more details

Chapter 8

Fabricating Pipe-to-Elbow Branch or Dummy Supports, Concentric or Eccentric, in 4 different orientations, Full or Partial Penetration

Notes:

Scope: Fig Functions covered in this chapter allow fabrication of LR or SR elbow-to-pipe branch connections, which may be categorized as being branches or dummy supports. These can be fabricated in 4 different orientations with full or partial penetration option. During calculations, diameters of elbow and branch pipes up to and including NPS 16 should be rounded to the nearest 0.1 mm and NPS 18 to 48 to the nearest whole millimeter. Likewise, the radius of elbows should be rounded to the nearest whole millimeter (as in the Table of Dimensions). When full penetration weld joints are called for, the faces should be beveled in accordance with applicable specifications. Cutting allowance should be accounted for from the side that is going to be discarded. If partial penetration welds are desired, the joints may be joined without root gap.

Making templates: Solutions derived by running Fig Functions illustrated herein may be laid-out out directly on the job. However, if templates are to be made, due caution must be exercised to make sure that there is no gap between the mating ends of the template and/or that they do not overlap when wrapped around the pipe.

Cutting procedure: Standard, for details, refer to Note 5, General Notes.

See General Notes for more details

Chapter 9

Fabricating Piping Offsets: 90’s 3D offsets-7 options, 90’s 2D offsets-5 options, 180’s parallel offsets-7 options and 180’s rolled parallel offsets-2 options

Notes:

Scope: Fig Functions covered in this chapter allow fabrication of small bore and large diameter special elbows and piping offsets with adequate options to deal with actual site conditions. The most salient feature here is that instead of one, two methods are defined for fabricating special elbows from 90˚ LR or SR elbows, this apart, 90’s 3D offsets come with 7 different and powerful options while 90’s 2D offsets come with 5 such options, 180’s parallel offsets comprise 7 options and 180’s rolled parallel offsets comprise 2 options. During calculations, diameters of elbow and pipes up to and including NPS 16 should be rounded to the nearest 0.1 mm and NPS 18 to the nearest whole millimeter. Likewise, the radius of elbows should be rounded to the nearest whole millimeter (as in the Table of Dimensions). Cutting allowance should be accounted for from the side that is going to be discarded. Root gap is not considered in these Fig Functions.

Cutting procedure: Standard, for details, refer to Note 5, General Notes.

See General Notes for more details

TABLES OF DIMENSION

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